package ij.plugin;
import java.util.*;
import ij.*;
import ij.process.*;
import ij.util.Tools;
import ij.measure.Calibration;

/** This plugin decodes DICOM files. If 'arg' is empty, it
    displays a file open dialog and opens and displays the 
    image selected by the user. If 'arg' is a path, it opens the 
    specified image and the calling routine can display it using
    "((ImagePlus)IJ.runPlugIn("ij.plugin.DICOM", path)).show()".

/* RAK (Richard Kirk, changes 14/7/99

   InputStream.skip() looped to check the actual number of
   bytes is read.

   Big/little-endian options on element length.

   Explicit check for each known VR to make mistaken identifications
   of explicit VR's less likely.

   Variables b1..b4 renamed as b0..b3.

   Increment of 4 to offset on (7FE0,0010) tag removed.

   Queries on some other unrecognized tags.
   Anyone want to claim them?

   RAK changes 15/7/99

   Bug fix on magic values for explicit VRs with 32-bit lengths.

   Various bits of tidying up, including...
   'location' incremented on read using getByte() or getString().
   simpler debug mode message generation (values no longer reported).

   Added z pixel aspect ratio support for multi-slice DICOM volumes.
   Michael Abramoff, 31-10-2000

   Added DICOM tags to the dictionary (now contains about 2700 tags).
   implemented getDouble() for VR = FD (Floating Double) and getFloat()
   for VR = FL (Floating Single).
   Extended case statement in getHeaderInfo to retrieve FD and FL values.
   Johannes Hermen, Christian Moll, 25-04-2008


public class DICOM extends ImagePlus implements PlugIn {
    private boolean showErrors = true;
    private boolean gettingInfo;
    private BufferedInputStream inputStream;
    private String info;
    /** Default constructor. */
    public DICOM() {

    /** Constructs a DICOM reader that using an InputStream. Here 
        is an example that shows how to open and display a DICOM:
        DICOM dcm = new DICOM(is);"Name");;
    public DICOM(InputStream is) {
        this(new BufferedInputStream(is));

    /** Constructs a DICOM reader that using an BufferredInputStream. */
    public DICOM(BufferedInputStream bis) {
        inputStream = bis;

    public void run(String arg) {
        OpenDialog od = new OpenDialog("Open Dicom...", arg);
        String directory = od.getDirectory();
        String fileName = od.getFileName();
        if (fileName==null)
        DicomDecoder dd = new DicomDecoder(directory, fileName);
        dd.inputStream = inputStream;
        FileInfo fi = null;
        try {
            fi = dd.getFileInfo();
        } catch (IOException e) {
            String msg = e.getMessage();
            if (msg.indexOf("EOF")<0&&showErrors) {
                IJ.error("DICOM Reader", e.getClass().getName()+"\n \n"+msg);
            } else if (!dd.dicmFound()&&showErrors) {
                msg = "This does not appear to be a valid\n"
                + "DICOM file. It does not have the\n"
                + "characters 'DICM' at offset 128.";
                IJ.error("DICOM Reader", msg);
        if (gettingInfo) {
            info = dd.getDicomInfo();
        if (fi!=null && fi.width>0 && fi.height>0 && fi.offset>0) {
            FileOpener fo = new FileOpener(fi);
            ImagePlus imp = fo.openImage();
            // Avoid opening as float even if slope != 1.0 in case ignoreRescaleSlope or fixedDicomScaling
            // were checked in the DICOM preferences.
            boolean openAsFloat = (dd.rescaleSlope!=1.0 && !(Prefs.ignoreRescaleSlope || Prefs.fixedDicomScaling)) 
                || Prefs.openDicomsAsFloat;
            String options = Macro.getOptions();
            if (openAsFloat) {
      , "32-bit", "");
                if (dd.rescaleSlope!=1.0)
          , "Multiply...", "value="+dd.rescaleSlope+" stack");
                if (dd.rescaleIntercept!=0.0)
          , "Add...", "value="+dd.rescaleIntercept+" stack");
                if (imp.getStackSize()>1) {
                    ImageStatistics stats = imp.getRawStatistics();
            } else if (fi.fileType==FileInfo.GRAY16_SIGNED) {
                if (dd.rescaleIntercept!=0.0 && (dd.rescaleSlope==1.0||Prefs.fixedDicomScaling)) {
                    double[] coeff = new double[2];
                    coeff[0] = dd.rescaleSlope*(-32768) + dd.rescaleIntercept;
                    coeff[1] = dd.rescaleSlope;
                    imp.getCalibration().setFunction(Calibration.STRAIGHT_LINE, coeff, "Gray Value");
            } else if (dd.rescaleIntercept!=0.0 && 
                      (dd.rescaleSlope==1.0||Prefs.fixedDicomScaling||fi.fileType==FileInfo.GRAY8)) {
                double[] coeff = new double[2];
                coeff[0] = dd.rescaleIntercept;
                coeff[1] = dd.rescaleSlope;
                imp.getCalibration().setFunction(Calibration.STRAIGHT_LINE, coeff, "Gray Value");
            if (dd.windowWidth>0.0) {
                double min = dd.windowCenter-dd.windowWidth/2;
                double max = dd.windowCenter+dd.windowWidth/2;
                if (!openAsFloat) {
                    Calibration cal = imp.getCalibration();
                    min = cal.getRawValue(min);
                    max = cal.getRawValue(max);
                ImageProcessor ip = imp.getProcessor();
                ip.setMinAndMax(min, max);
                if (IJ.debugMode) IJ.log("window: "+min+"-"+max);
            if (imp.getStackSize()>1)
                setStack(fileName, imp.getStack());
                setProcessor(fileName, imp.getProcessor());
            setProperty("Info", dd.getDicomInfo());
            setFileInfo(fi); // needed for revert
            if (arg.equals("")) show();
        } else if (showErrors)
            IJ.error("DICOM Reader","Unable to decode DICOM header.");

    /** Opens the specified file as a DICOM. Does not 
        display a message if there is an error.
        Here is an example:
        DICOM dcm = new DICOM();;
        if (dcm.getWidth()==0)
            IJ.log("Error opening '"+path+"'");
    public void open(String path) {
        showErrors = false;
    /** Returns the DICOM tags of the specified file as a string. */ 
    public String getInfo(String path) {
        showErrors = false;
        gettingInfo = true;
        return info;

    /** Convert 16-bit signed to unsigned if all pixels>=0. */
    void convertToUnsigned(ImagePlus imp, FileInfo fi) {
        ImageProcessor ip = imp.getProcessor();
        short[] pixels = (short[])ip.getPixels();
        int min = Integer.MAX_VALUE;
        int value;
        for (int i=0; i<pixels.length; i++) {
            value = pixels[i]&0xffff;
            if (value<min)
                min = value;
        if (IJ.debugMode) IJ.log("min: "+(min-32768));
        if (min>=32768) {
            for (int i=0; i<pixels.length; i++)
                pixels[i] = (short)(pixels[i]-32768);
            Calibration cal = imp.getCalibration();
            cal.setFunction(Calibration.NONE, null, "Gray Value");
            fi.fileType = FileInfo.GRAY16_UNSIGNED;
    /** Returns the name of the specified DICOM tag id. */
    public static String getTagName(String id) {
        id = id.replaceAll(",", "");
        DicomDictionary d = new DicomDictionary();
        Properties dictionary = d.getDictionary();
        String name = (String)dictionary.get(id);
        if (name!=null)
            name = name.substring(2);
        return name;


class DicomDecoder {

    private static final int PIXEL_REPRESENTATION = 0x00280103;
    private static final int TRANSFER_SYNTAX_UID = 0x00020010;
    private static final int MODALITY = 0x00080060;
    private static final int SLICE_THICKNESS = 0x00180050;
    private static final int SLICE_SPACING = 0x00180088;
    private static final int IMAGER_PIXEL_SPACING = 0x00181164;
    private static final int SAMPLES_PER_PIXEL = 0x00280002;
    private static final int PHOTOMETRIC_INTERPRETATION = 0x00280004;
    private static final int PLANAR_CONFIGURATION = 0x00280006;
    private static final int NUMBER_OF_FRAMES = 0x00280008;
    private static final int ROWS = 0x00280010;
    private static final int COLUMNS = 0x00280011;
    private static final int PIXEL_SPACING = 0x00280030;
    private static final int BITS_ALLOCATED = 0x00280100;
    private static final int WINDOW_CENTER = 0x00281050;
    private static final int WINDOW_WIDTH = 0x00281051; 
    private static final int RESCALE_INTERCEPT = 0x00281052;
    private static final int RESCALE_SLOPE = 0x00281053;
    private static final int RED_PALETTE = 0x00281201;
    private static final int GREEN_PALETTE = 0x00281202;
    private static final int BLUE_PALETTE = 0x00281203;
    private static final int ACQUISITION_CONTEXT_SEQUENCE = 0x00400555;
    private static final int VIEW_CODE_SEQUENCE = 0x00540220;
    private static final int ICON_IMAGE_SEQUENCE = 0x00880200;
    private static final int ITEM = 0xFFFEE000;
    private static final int ITEM_DELIMINATION = 0xFFFEE00D;
    private static final int SEQUENCE_DELIMINATION = 0xFFFEE0DD;
    private static final int FLOAT_PIXEL_DATA = 0x7FE00008;
    private static final int PIXEL_DATA = 0x7FE00010;

    private static final int AE=0x4145, AS=0x4153, AT=0x4154, CS=0x4353, DA=0x4441, DS=0x4453, DT=0x4454,
        FD=0x4644, FL=0x464C, IS=0x4953, LO=0x4C4F, LT=0x4C54, PN=0x504E, SH=0x5348, SL=0x534C, 
        SS=0x5353, ST=0x5354, TM=0x544D, UI=0x5549, UL=0x554C, US=0x5553, UT=0x5554,
        OB=0x4F42, OW=0x4F57, SQ=0x5351, UN=0x554E, QQ=0x3F3F,
        OF=0x4F46, OL=0x4F4C, OD=0x4F44, UC=0x5543, UR=0x5552, OV=0x4F56, SV=0x5356, UV=0x5556;
    private static Properties dictionary;

    private String directory, fileName;
    private static final int ID_OFFSET = 128;  //location of "DICM"
    private static final String DICM = "DICM";
    private BufferedInputStream f;
    private int location = 0;
    private boolean littleEndian = true;
    private int elementLength;
    private int vr;  // Value Representation
    private static final int IMPLICIT_VR = 0x2D2D; // '--' 
    private byte[] vrLetters = new byte[2];
    private int previousGroup;
    private String previousInfo;
    private StringBuffer dicomInfo = new StringBuffer(1000);
    private boolean dicmFound; // "DICM" found at offset 128
    private boolean oddLocations;  // one or more tags at odd locations
    private boolean bigEndianTransferSyntax = false;
    double windowCenter, windowWidth;
    double rescaleIntercept, rescaleSlope=1.0;
    boolean inSequence;
    BufferedInputStream inputStream;
    String modality;
    private boolean acquisitionSequence;

    public DicomDecoder(String directory, String fileName) { = directory;
        this.fileName = fileName;
        String path = null;
        if (dictionary==null && IJ.getApplet()==null) {
            path = Prefs.getImageJDir()+"DICOM_Dictionary.txt";
            File f = new File(path);
            if (f.exists()) try {
                dictionary = new Properties();
                InputStream is = new BufferedInputStream(new FileInputStream(f));
                if (IJ.debugMode) IJ.log("DicomDecoder: using "+dictionary.size()+" tag dictionary at "+path);
            } catch (Exception e) {
                dictionary = null;
        if (dictionary==null) {
            DicomDictionary d = new DicomDictionary();
            dictionary = d.getDictionary();
            if (IJ.debugMode) IJ.log("DicomDecoder: "+path+" not found; using "+dictionary.size()+" tag built in dictionary");
    String getString(int length) throws IOException {
        byte[] buf = new byte[length];
        int pos = 0;
        while (pos<length) {
            int count =, pos, length-pos);
            if (count==-1)
                throw new IOException("unexpected EOF");
            pos += count;
        location += length;
        return new String(buf);
    String getUNString(int length) throws IOException {
        String s = getString(length);
        if (s!=null && s.length()>60)
            s = s.substring(0,60);
        return s;

    int getByte() throws IOException {
        int b =;
        if (b ==-1)
            throw new IOException("unexpected EOF");
        return b;

    int getShort() throws IOException {
        int b0 = getByte();
        int b1 = getByte();
        if (littleEndian)
            return ((b1 << 8) + b0);
            return ((b0 << 8) + b1);
    int getSShort() throws IOException {
        short b0 = (short)getByte();
        short b1 = (short)getByte();
        if (littleEndian)
            return ((b1 << 8) + b0);
            return ((b0 << 8) + b1);
    final int getInt() throws IOException {
        int b0 = getByte();
        int b1 = getByte();
        int b2 = getByte();
        int b3 = getByte();
        if (littleEndian)
            return ((b3<<24) + (b2<<16) + (b1<<8) + b0);
            return ((b0<<24) + (b1<<16) + (b2<<8) + b3);
    long getUInt() throws IOException {
        long b0 = getByte();
        long b1 = getByte();
        long b2 = getByte();
        long b3 = getByte();
        if (littleEndian)
            return ((b3<<24) + (b2<<16) + (b1<<8) + b0);
            return ((b0<<24) + (b1<<16) + (b2<<8) + b3);

    double getDouble() throws IOException {
        int b0 = getByte();
        int b1 = getByte();
        int b2 = getByte();
        int b3 = getByte();
        int b4 = getByte();
        int b5 = getByte();
        int b6 = getByte();
        int b7 = getByte();
        long res = 0;
        if (littleEndian) {
            res += b0;
            res += ( ((long)b1) << 8);
            res += ( ((long)b2) << 16);
            res += ( ((long)b3) << 24);
            res += ( ((long)b4) << 32);
            res += ( ((long)b5) << 40);
            res += ( ((long)b6) << 48);
            res += ( ((long)b7) << 56);         
        } else {
            res += b7;
            res += ( ((long)b6) << 8);
            res += ( ((long)b5) << 16);
            res += ( ((long)b4) << 24);
            res += ( ((long)b3) << 32);
            res += ( ((long)b2) << 40);
            res += ( ((long)b1) << 48);
            res += ( ((long)b0) << 56);
        return Double.longBitsToDouble(res);
    float getFloat() throws IOException {
        int b0 = getByte();
        int b1 = getByte();
        int b2 = getByte();
        int b3 = getByte();
        int res = 0;
        if (littleEndian) {
            res += b0;
            res += ( ((long)b1) << 8);
            res += ( ((long)b2) << 16);
            res += ( ((long)b3) << 24);     
        } else {
            res += b3;
            res += ( ((long)b2) << 8);
            res += ( ((long)b1) << 16);
            res += ( ((long)b0) << 24);
        return Float.intBitsToFloat(res);
    byte[] getLut(int length) throws IOException {
        if ((length&1)!=0) { // odd
            String dummy = getString(length);
            return null;
        length /= 2;
        byte[] lut = new byte[length];
        for (int i=0; i<length; i++)
            lut[i] = (byte)(getShort()>>>8);
        return lut;
    int getLength() throws IOException {
        int b0 = getByte();
        int b1 = getByte();
        int b2 = getByte();
        int b3 = getByte();
        // We cannot know whether the VR is implicit or explicit
        // without the full DICOM Data Dictionary for public and
        // private groups.
        // We will assume the VR is explicit if the two bytes
        // match the known codes. It is possible that these two
        // bytes are part of a 32-bit length for an implicit VR.
        vr = (b0<<8) + b1;
        switch (vr) {
            case OB: case OW: case SQ: case UN: case UT:
            case OF: case OL: case OD: case UC: case UR: 
            case OV: case SV: case UV:
                // Explicit VR with 32-bit length if other two bytes are zero
                if ( (b2 == 0) || (b3 == 0) ) return getInt();
                // Implicit VR with 32-bit length
                vr = IMPLICIT_VR;
                if (littleEndian)
                    return ((b3<<24) + (b2<<16) + (b1<<8) + b0);
                    return ((b0<<24) + (b1<<16) + (b2<<8) + b3);
            case AE: case AS: case AT: case CS: case DA: case DS: case DT:  case FD:
            case FL: case IS: case LO: case LT: case PN: case SH: case SL: case SS:
            case ST: case TM: case UI: case UL: case US: case QQ:
                // Explicit vr with 16-bit length
                if (littleEndian)
                    return ((b3<<8) + b2);
                    return ((b2<<8) + b3);
                // Implicit VR with 32-bit length...
                vr = IMPLICIT_VR;
                if (littleEndian)
                    return ((b3<<24) + (b2<<16) + (b1<<8) + b0);
                    return ((b0<<24) + (b1<<16) + (b2<<8) + b3);

    int getNextTag() throws IOException {
        int groupWord = getShort();
        if (groupWord==0x0800 && bigEndianTransferSyntax) {
            littleEndian = false;
            groupWord = 0x0008;
        int elementWord = getShort();
        int tag = groupWord<<16 | elementWord;
        elementLength = getLength();
        // hack needed to read some GE files
        // The element length must be even!
        if (elementLength==13 && !oddLocations) elementLength = 10; 
        // "Undefined" element length.
        // This is a sort of bracket that encloses a sequence of elements.
        if (elementLength==-1) {
            elementLength = 0;
            inSequence = true;
        //IJ.log("getNextTag: "+tag+" "+elementLength);
        return tag;
    FileInfo getFileInfo() throws IOException {
        long skipCount;
        FileInfo fi = new FileInfo();
        int bitsAllocated = 16;
        fi.fileFormat = fi.RAW;
        fi.fileName = fileName;
        if (directory.indexOf("://")>0) { // is URL
            URL u = new URL(directory+fileName);
            inputStream = new BufferedInputStream(u.openStream());
            fi.inputStream = inputStream;
        } else if (inputStream!=null)
            fi.inputStream = inputStream;
   = directory;
        fi.width = 0;
        fi.height = 0;
        fi.offset = 0;
        fi.intelByteOrder = true;
        fi.fileType = FileInfo.GRAY16_UNSIGNED;
        fi.fileFormat = FileInfo.DICOM;
        int samplesPerPixel = 1;
        int planarConfiguration = 0;
        String photoInterpretation = "";
        if (inputStream!=null) {
            // Use large buffer to allow URL stream to be reset after reading header
            f = inputStream;
        } else
            f = new BufferedInputStream(new FileInputStream(directory + fileName));
        if (IJ.debugMode) {
            IJ.log("DicomDecoder: decoding "+fileName);
        int[] bytes = new int[ID_OFFSET];
        for (int i=0; i<ID_OFFSET; i++)
            bytes[i] = getByte();
        if (!getString(4).equals(DICM)) {
            if (!((bytes[0]==8||bytes[0]==2) && bytes[1]==0 && bytes[3]==0))
                throw new IOException("This is not a DICOM or ACR/NEMA file");
            if (inputStream==null) f.close();
            if (inputStream!=null)
                f = new BufferedInputStream(new FileInputStream(directory + fileName));
            location = 0;
            if (IJ.debugMode) IJ.log(DICM + " not found at offset "+ID_OFFSET+"; reseting to offset 0");
        } else {
            dicmFound = true;
            if (IJ.debugMode) IJ.log(DICM + " found at offset " + ID_OFFSET);
        boolean decodingTags = true;
        boolean signed = false;
        while (decodingTags) {
            int tag = getNextTag();
            if ((location&1)!=0) // DICOM tags must be at even locations
                oddLocations = true;
            if (inSequence && !acquisitionSequence) {
                addInfo(tag, null);
            String s;
            switch (tag) {
                case TRANSFER_SYNTAX_UID:
                    s = getString(elementLength);
                    addInfo(tag, s);
                    if (s.indexOf("1.2.4")>-1||s.indexOf("1.2.5")>-1) {
                        String msg = "ImageJ cannot open compressed DICOM images.\n \n";
                        msg += "Transfer Syntax UID = "+s;
                        throw new IOException(msg);
                    if (s.indexOf("1.2.840.10008.1.2.2")>=0)
                        bigEndianTransferSyntax = true;
                case MODALITY:
                    modality = getString(elementLength);
                    addInfo(tag, modality);
                case NUMBER_OF_FRAMES:
                    s = getString(elementLength);
                    addInfo(tag, s);
                    double frames = s2d(s);
                    if (frames>1.0)
                        fi.nImages = (int)frames;
                case SAMPLES_PER_PIXEL:
                    samplesPerPixel = getShort();
                    addInfo(tag, samplesPerPixel);
                    photoInterpretation = getString(elementLength);
                    addInfo(tag, photoInterpretation);
                case PLANAR_CONFIGURATION:
                    planarConfiguration = getShort();
                    addInfo(tag, planarConfiguration);
                case ROWS:
                    fi.height = getShort();
                    addInfo(tag, fi.height);
                case COLUMNS:
                    fi.width = getShort();
                    addInfo(tag, fi.width);
                case IMAGER_PIXEL_SPACING: case PIXEL_SPACING:
                    String scale = getString(elementLength);
                    getSpatialScale(fi, scale);
                    addInfo(tag, scale);
                case SLICE_THICKNESS: case SLICE_SPACING:
                    String spacing = getString(elementLength);
                    fi.pixelDepth = s2d(spacing);
                    addInfo(tag, spacing);
                case BITS_ALLOCATED:
                    bitsAllocated = getShort();
                    if (bitsAllocated==8)
                        fi.fileType = FileInfo.GRAY8;
                    else if (bitsAllocated==32)
                        fi.fileType = FileInfo.GRAY32_UNSIGNED;
                    addInfo(tag, bitsAllocated);
                case PIXEL_REPRESENTATION:
                    int pixelRepresentation = getShort();
                    if (pixelRepresentation==1) {
                        fi.fileType = FileInfo.GRAY16_SIGNED;
                        signed = true;
                    addInfo(tag, pixelRepresentation);
                case WINDOW_CENTER:
                    String center = getString(elementLength);
                    int index = center.indexOf('\\');
                    if (index!=-1) center = center.substring(index+1);
                    windowCenter = s2d(center);
                    addInfo(tag, center);
                case WINDOW_WIDTH:
                    String width = getString(elementLength);
                    index = width.indexOf('\\');
                    if (index!=-1) width = width.substring(index+1);
                    windowWidth = s2d(width);
                    addInfo(tag, width);
                case RESCALE_INTERCEPT:
                    String intercept = getString(elementLength);
                    rescaleIntercept = s2d(intercept);
                    addInfo(tag, intercept);
                case RESCALE_SLOPE:
                    String slop = getString(elementLength);
                    rescaleSlope = s2d(slop);
                    addInfo(tag, slop);
                case RED_PALETTE:
                    fi.reds = getLut(elementLength);
                    addInfo(tag, elementLength/2);
                case GREEN_PALETTE:
                    fi.greens = getLut(elementLength);
                    addInfo(tag, elementLength/2);
                case BLUE_PALETTE:
                    fi.blues = getLut(elementLength);
                    addInfo(tag, elementLength/2);
                case FLOAT_PIXEL_DATA:
                    fi.fileType = FileInfo.GRAY32_FLOAT;
                    // continue without break
                case PIXEL_DATA:
                    // Start of image data...
                    if (elementLength!=0) {
                        fi.offset = location;
                        addInfo(tag, location);
                        decodingTags = false;
                    } else
                        addInfo(tag, null);
                case 0x7F880010:
                    // What is this? - RAK
                    if (elementLength!=0) {
                        fi.offset = location+4;
                        decodingTags = false;
                    // Not used, skip over it...
                    addInfo(tag, null);
        } // while(decodingTags)
        if (fi.fileType==FileInfo.GRAY8) {
            if (fi.reds!=null && fi.greens!=null && fi.blues!=null
            && fi.reds.length==fi.greens.length
            && fi.reds.length==fi.blues.length) {
                fi.fileType = FileInfo.COLOR8;
                fi.lutSize = fi.reds.length;
        if (fi.fileType==FileInfo.GRAY32_UNSIGNED && signed)
            fi.fileType = FileInfo.GRAY32_INT;

        if (samplesPerPixel==3 && photoInterpretation.startsWith("RGB")) {
            if (planarConfiguration==0)
                fi.fileType = FileInfo.RGB;
            else if (planarConfiguration==1)
                fi.fileType = FileInfo.RGB_PLANAR;
        } else if (photoInterpretation.endsWith("1 "))
                fi.whiteIsZero = true;
        if (!littleEndian)
            fi.intelByteOrder = false;
        if (IJ.debugMode) {
            IJ.log("width: " + fi.width);
            IJ.log("height: " + fi.height);
            IJ.log("images: " + fi.nImages);
            IJ.log("bits allocated: " + bitsAllocated);
            IJ.log("offset: " + fi.offset);
        if (inputStream!=null)
        return fi;
    String getDicomInfo() {
        String s = new String(dicomInfo);
        char[] chars = new char[s.length()];
        s.getChars(0, s.length(), chars, 0);
        for (int i=0; i<chars.length; i++) {
            if (chars[i]<' ' && chars[i]!='\n') chars[i] = ' ';
        return new String(chars);

    void addInfo(int tag, String value) throws IOException {
        String info = getHeaderInfo(tag, value);
        if (inSequence && info!=null && vr!=SQ) info = ">" + info;
        if (info!=null &&  tag!=ITEM) {
            int group = tag>>>16;
            //if (group!=previousGroup && (previousInfo!=null&&previousInfo.indexOf("Sequence:")==-1))
            //  dicomInfo.append("\n");
            previousGroup = group;
            previousInfo = info;
        if (IJ.debugMode) {
            if (info==null) info = "";
            vrLetters[0] = (byte)(vr >> 8);
            vrLetters[1] = (byte)(vr & 0xFF);
            String VR = new String(vrLetters);
            IJ.log("(" + tag2hex(tag) + VR
            + " " + elementLength
            + " bytes from "
            + (location-elementLength)+") "
            + info);

    void addInfo(int tag, int value) throws IOException {
        addInfo(tag, Integer.toString(value));

    String getHeaderInfo(int tag, String value) throws IOException {
            inSequence = false;
            if (!IJ.debugMode) return null;
        String key = i2hex(tag);
        //while (key.length()<8)
        //  key = '0' + key;
        String id = (String)dictionary.get(key);
        if (id!=null) {
            if (vr==IMPLICIT_VR && id!=null)
                vr = (id.charAt(0)<<8) + id.charAt(1);
            id = id.substring(2);
        if (tag==ITEM)
            return id!=null?id+":":null;
        if (value!=null)
            return id+": "+value;
        switch (vr) {
            case FD:
                if (elementLength==8)
                    value = Double.toString(getDouble());
                    for (int i=0; i<elementLength; i++) getByte();
            case FL:
                if (elementLength==4)
                    value = Float.toString(getFloat());
                    for (int i=0; i<elementLength; i++) getByte();
            //case UT:
                //throw new IOException("ImageJ cannot read UT (unlimited text) DICOMs");
            case AE: case AS: case AT: case CS: case DA: case DS: case DT:  case IS: case LO: 
            case LT: case PN: case SH: case ST: case TM: case UI:
                value = getString(elementLength);
            case UN:
                value = getUNString(elementLength);
            case US:
                if (elementLength==2)
                    value = Integer.toString(getShort());
                else {
                    int n = elementLength/2;
                    StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder();
                    for (int i=0; i<n; i++) {
                        sb.append(" ");
                    value = sb.toString();
            case SS:
                if (elementLength==2)
                    value = Integer.toString(getSShort());
                else {
                    int n = elementLength/2;
                    StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder();
                    for (int i=0; i<n; i++) {
                        sb.append(" ");
                    value = sb.toString();
            case UL:
                if (elementLength==4)
                    value = Long.toString(getUInt());
                else {
                    int n = elementLength/4;
                    StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder();
                    for (int i=0; i<n; i++) {
                        sb.append(" ");
                    value = sb.toString();
            case SL:
                if (elementLength==4)
                    value = Long.toString(getInt());
                else {
                    int n = elementLength/4;
                    StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder();
                    for (int i=0; i<n; i++) {
                        sb.append(" ");
                    value = sb.toString();
            case IMPLICIT_VR:
                value = getString(elementLength);
                if (elementLength>44) value=null;
            case SQ:
                value = "";
                if (tag==ACQUISITION_CONTEXT_SEQUENCE)
                    acquisitionSequence = true;
                if (tag==VIEW_CODE_SEQUENCE)
                    acquisitionSequence = false;
                boolean privateTag = ((tag>>16)&1)!=0;
                if (tag!=ICON_IMAGE_SEQUENCE && !privateTag)
                // else fall through and skip icon image sequence or private sequence
                long skipCount = (long)elementLength;
                while (skipCount > 0) skipCount -= f.skip(skipCount);
                location += elementLength;
                value = "";
        if (value!=null && id==null && !value.equals(""))
            return "---: "+value;
        else if (id==null)
            return null;
            return id+": "+value;

    static char[] buf8 = new char[8];
    /** Converts an int to an 8 byte hex string. */
    String i2hex(int i) {
        for (int pos=7; pos>=0; pos--) {
            buf8[pos] = Tools.hexDigits[i&0xf];
            i >>>= 4;
        return new String(buf8);

    char[] buf10;
    String tag2hex(int tag) {
        if (buf10==null) {
            buf10 = new char[11];
            buf10[4] = ',';
            buf10[9] = ' ';
        int pos = 8;
        while (pos>=0) {
            buf10[pos] = Tools.hexDigits[tag&0xf];
            tag >>>= 4;
            if (pos==4) pos--; // skip coma
        return new String(buf10);
    double s2d(String s) {
        if (s==null) return 0.0;
        if (s.startsWith("\\"))
            s = s.substring(1);
        Double d;
        try {d = Double.valueOf(s);}
        catch (NumberFormatException e) {d = null;}
        if (d!=null)
    void getSpatialScale(FileInfo fi, String scale) {
        double xscale=0, yscale=0;
        int i = scale.indexOf('\\');
        if (i>0) {
            yscale = s2d(scale.substring(0, i));
            xscale = s2d(scale.substring(i+1));
        if (xscale!=0.0 && yscale!=0.0) {
            fi.pixelWidth = xscale;
            fi.pixelHeight = yscale;
            fi.unit = "mm";
    boolean dicmFound() {
        return dicmFound;


class DicomDictionary {

    Properties getDictionary() {
        Properties p = new Properties();
        for (int i=0; i<dict.length; i++) {
            p.put(dict[i].substring(0,8), dict[i].substring(9));
        return p;

    String[] dict = {
        "00020002=UIMedia Storage SOP Class UID", 
        "00020003=UIMedia Storage SOP Inst UID",
        "00020010=UITransfer Syntax UID",
        "00020012=UIImplementation Class UID",
        "00020013=SHImplementation Version Name",
        "00020016=AESource Application Entity Title",
        "00080005=CSSpecific Character Set",
        "00080008=CSImage Type",
        "00080010=CSRecognition Code",
        "00080012=DAInstance Creation Date",
        "00080013=TMInstance Creation Time",
        "00080014=UIInstance Creator UID",
        "00080016=UISOP Class UID",
        "00080018=UISOP Instance UID",
        "00080020=DAStudy Date",
        "00080021=DASeries Date",
        "00080022=DAAcquisition Date",
        "00080023=DAImage Date",
        "00080024=DAOverlay Date",
        "00080025=DACurve Date",
        "00080030=TMStudy Time",
        "00080031=TMSeries Time",
        "00080032=TMAcquisition Time",
        "00080033=TMImage Time",
        "00080034=TMOverlay Time",
        "00080035=TMCurve Time",
        "00080040=USData Set Type",
        "00080041=LOData Set Subtype",
        "00080042=CSNuclear Medicine Series Type",
        "00080050=SHAccession Number",
        "00080052=CSQuery/Retrieve Level",
        "00080054=AERetrieve AE Title",
        "00080058=AEFailed SOP Instance UID List",
        "00080064=CSConversion Type",
        "00080068=CSPresentation Intent Type",
        "00080080=LOInstitution Name",
        "00080081=STInstitution Address",
        "00080082=SQInstitution Code Sequence",
        "00080090=PNReferring Physician's Name",
        "00080092=STReferring Physician's Address",
        "00080094=SHReferring Physician's Telephone Numbers",
        "00080100=SHCode Value",
        "00080102=SHCoding Scheme Designator",
        "00080104=LOCode Meaning",
        "00080201=SHTimezone Offset From UTC",
        "00081010=SHStation Name",
        "00081030=LOStudy Description",
        "00081032=SQProcedure Code Sequence",
        "0008103E=LOSeries Description",
        "00081040=LOInstitutional Department Name",
        "00081048=PNPhysician(s) of Record",
        "00081050=PNAttending Physician's Name",
        "00081060=PNName of Physician(s) Reading Study",
        "00081070=PNOperator's Name",
        "00081080=LOAdmitting Diagnoses Description",
        "00081084=SQAdmitting Diagnosis Code Sequence",
        "00081090=LOManufacturer's Model Name",
        "00081100=SQReferenced Results Sequence",
        "00081110=SQReferenced Study Sequence",
        "00081111=SQReferenced Study Component Sequence",
        "00081115=SQReferenced Series Sequence",
        "00081120=SQReferenced Patient Sequence",
        "00081125=SQReferenced Visit Sequence",
        "00081130=SQReferenced Overlay Sequence",
        "00081140=SQReferenced Image Sequence",
        "00081145=SQReferenced Curve Sequence",
        "00081150=UIReferenced SOP Class UID",
        "00081155=UIReferenced SOP Instance UID",
        "00082111=STDerivation Description",
        "00082112=SQSource Image Sequence",
        "00082120=SHStage Name",
        "00082122=ISStage Number",
        "00082124=ISNumber of Stages",
        "00082129=ISNumber of Event Timers",
        "00082128=ISView Number",
        "0008212A=ISNumber of Views in Stage",
        "00082130=DSEvent Elapsed Time(s)",
        "00082132=LOEvent Timer Name(s)",
        "00082142=ISStart Trim",
        "00082143=ISStop Trim",
        "00082144=ISRecommended Display Frame Rate",
        "00082200=CSTransducer Position",
        "00082204=CSTransducer Orientation",
        "00082208=CSAnatomic Structure",
        "00100010=PNPatient's Name",
        "00100020=LOPatient ID",
        "00100021=LOIssuer of Patient ID",
        "00100030=DAPatient's Birth Date",
        "00100032=TMPatient's Birth Time",
        "00100040=CSPatient's Sex",
        "00101000=LOOther Patient IDs",
        "00101001=PNOther Patient Names",
        "00101005=PNPatient's Maiden Name",
        "00101010=ASPatient's Age",
        "00101020=DSPatient's Size",
        "00101030=DSPatient's Weight",
        "00101040=LOPatient's Address",
        "00102150=LOCountry of Residence",
        "00102152=LORegion of Residence",
        "001021A0=CSSmoking Status",
        "001021B0=LTAdditional Patient History",
        "00104000=LTPatient Comments",
        "00180010=LOContrast/Bolus Agent",
        "00180015=CSBody Part Examined",
        "00180020=CSScanning Sequence",
        "00180021=CSSequence Variant",
        "00180022=CSScan Options",
        "00180023=CSMR Acquisition Type",
        "00180024=SHSequence Name",
        "00180025=CSAngio Flag",
        "00180032=DSEnergy Window Centerline",
        "00180033=DSEnergy Window Total Width",
        "00180034=LOIntervention Drug Name",
        "00180035=TMIntervention Drug Start Time",
        "00180040=ISCine Rate",
        "00180050=DSSlice Thickness",
        "00180070=ISCounts Accumulated",
        "00180071=CSAcquisition Termination Condition",
        "00180072=DSEffective Series Duration",
        "00180073=CSAcquisition Start Condition",
        "00180074=ISAcquisition Start Condition Data",
        "00180075=ISAcquisition Termination Condition Data",
        "00180080=DSRepetition Time",
        "00180081=DSEcho Time",
        "00180082=DSInversion Time",
        "00180083=DSNumber of Averages",
        "00180084=DSImaging Frequency",
        "00180085=SHImaged Nucleus",
        "00180086=ISEcho Numbers(s)",
        "00180087=DSMagnetic Field Strength",
        "00180088=DSSpacing Between Slices",
        "00180089=ISNumber of Phase Encoding Steps",
        "00180090=DSData Collection Diameter",
        "00180091=ISEcho Train Length",
        "00180093=DSPercent Sampling",
        "00180094=DSPercent Phase Field of View",
        "00180095=DSPixel Bandwidth",
        "00181000=LODevice Serial Number",
        "00181004=LOPlate ID",
        "00181010=LOSecondary Capture Device ID",
        "00181012=DADate of Secondary Capture",
        "00181014=TMTime of Secondary Capture",
        "00181016=LOSecondary Capture Device Manufacturer",
        "00181018=LOSecondary Capture Device Manufacturer's Model Name",
        "00181019=LOSecondary Capture Device Software Version(s)",
        "00181020=LOSoftware Versions(s)",
        "00181022=SHVideo Image Format Acquired",
        "00181023=LODigital Image Format Acquired",
        "00181030=LOProtocol Name",
        "00181040=LOContrast/Bolus Route",
        "00181041=DSContrast/Bolus Volume",
        "00181042=TMContrast/Bolus Start Time",
        "00181043=TMContrast/Bolus Stop Time",
        "00181044=DSContrast/Bolus Total Dose",
        "00181045=ISSyringe Counts",
        "00181050=DSSpatial Resolution",
        "00181060=DSTrigger Time",
        "00181061=LOTrigger Source or Type",
        "00181062=ISNominal Interval",
        "00181063=DSFrame Time",
        "00181064=LOFraming Type",
        "00181065=DSFrame Time Vector",
        "00181066=DSFrame Delay",
        "00181070=LORadionuclide Route",
        "00181071=DSRadionuclide Volume",
        "00181072=TMRadionuclide Start Time",
        "00181073=TMRadionuclide Stop Time",
        "00181074=DSRadionuclide Total Dose",
        "00181075=DSRadionuclide Half Life",
        "00181076=DSRadionuclide Positron Fraction",
        "00181080=CSBeat Rejection Flag",
        "00181081=ISLow R-R Value",
        "00181082=ISHigh R-R Value",
        "00181083=ISIntervals Acquired",
        "00181084=ISIntervals Rejected",
        "00181085=LOPVC Rejection",
        "00181086=ISSkip Beats",
        "00181088=ISHeart Rate",
        "00181090=ISCardiac Number of Images",
        "00181094=ISTrigger Window",
        "00181100=DSReconstruction Diameter",
        "00181110=DSDistance Source to Detector",
        "00181111=DSDistance Source to Patient",
        "00181120=DSGantry/Detector Tilt",
        "00181130=DSTable Height",
        "00181131=DSTable Traverse",
        "00181140=CSRotation Direction",
        "00181141=DSAngular Position",
        "00181142=DSRadial Position",
        "00181143=DSScan Arc",
        "00181144=DSAngular Step",
        "00181145=DSCenter of Rotation Offset",
        "00181146=DSRotation Offset",
        "00181147=CSField of View Shape",
        "00181149=ISField of View Dimensions(s)",
        "00181150=ISExposure Time",
        "00181151=ISX-ray Tube Current",
        "00181153=ISExposure in uAs",
        "00181154=DSAverage Pulse Width",
        "00181155=CSRadiation Setting",
        "00181156=CSRectification Type",
        "0018115A=CSRadiation Mode",
        "0018115E=DSImage Area Dose Product",
        "00181160=SHFilter Type",
        "00181161=LOType of Filters",
        "00181162=DSIntensifier Size",
        "00181164=DSImager Pixel Spacing",
        "00181170=ISGenerator Power",
        "00181180=SHCollimator/grid Name",
        "00181181=CSCollimator Type",
        "00181182=ISFocal Distance",
        "00181183=DSX Focus Center",
        "00181184=DSY Focus Center",
        "00181190=DSFocal Spot(s)",
        "00181191=CSAnode Target Material",
        "001811A0=DSBody Part Thickness",
        "001811A2=DSCompression Force",
        "00181200=DADate of Last Calibration",
        "00181201=TMTime of Last Calibration",
        "00181210=SHConvolution Kernel",
        "00181242=ISActual Frame Duration",
        "00181243=ISCount Rate",
        "00181250=SHReceiving Coil",
        "00181251=SHTransmitting Coil",
        "00181260=SHPlate Type",
        "00181261=LOPhosphor Type",
        "00181300=ISScan Velocity",
        "00181301=CSWhole Body Technique",
        "00181302=ISScan Length",
        "00181310=USAcquisition Matrix",
        "00181312=CSPhase Encoding Direction",
        "00181314=DSFlip Angle",
        "00181315=CSVariable Flip Angle Flag",
        "00181400=LOAcquisition Device Processing Description",
        "00181401=LOAcquisition Device Processing Code",
        "00181402=CSCassette Orientation",
        "00181403=CSCassette Size",
        "00181404=USExposures on Plate",
        "00181405=ISRelative X-ray Exposure",
        "00181450=CSColumn Angulation",
        "00181500=CSPositioner Motion",
        "00181508=CSPositioner Type",
        "00181510=DSPositioner Primary Angle",
        "00181511=DSPositioner Secondary Angle",
        "00181520=DSPositioner Primary Angle Increment",
        "00181521=DSPositioner Secondary Angle Increment",
        "00181530=DSDetector Primary Angle",
        "00181531=DSDetector Secondary Angle",
        "00181600=CSShutter Shape",
        "00181602=ISShutter Left Vertical Edge",
        "00181604=ISShutter Right Vertical Edge",
        "00181606=ISShutter Upper Horizontal Edge",
        "00181608=ISShutter Lower Horizontal Edge",
        "00181610=ISCenter of Circular Shutter",
        "00181612=ISRadius of Circular Shutter",
        "00181620=ISVertices of the Polygonal Shutter",
        "00181700=ISCollimator Shape",
        "00181702=ISCollimator Left Vertical Edge",
        "00181704=ISCollimator Right Vertical Edge",
        "00181706=ISCollimator Upper Horizontal Edge",
        "00181708=ISCollimator Lower Horizontal Edge",
        "00181710=ISCenter of Circular Collimator",
        "00181712=ISRadius of Circular Collimator",
        "00181720=ISVertices of the Polygonal Collimator",
        "00185000=SHOutput Power",
        "00185010=LOTransducer Data",
        "00185012=DSFocus Depth",
        "00185020=LOPreprocessing Function",
        "00185021=LOPostprocessing Function",
        "00185022=DSMechanical Index",
        "00185024=DSThermal Index",
        "00185026=DSCranial Thermal Index",
        "00185027=DSSoft Tissue Thermal Index",
        "00185028=DSSoft Tissue-focus Thermal Index",
        "00185029=DSSoft Tissue-surface Thermal Index",
        "00185050=ISDepth of Scan Field",
        "00185100=CSPatient Position",
        "00185101=CSView Position",
        "00185104=SQProjection Eponymous Name Code Sequence",
        "00185210=DSImage Transformation Matrix",
        "00185212=DSImage Translation Vector",
        "00186011=SQSequence of Ultrasound Regions",
        "00186012=USRegion Spatial Format",
        "00186014=USRegion Data Type",
        "00186016=ULRegion Flags",
        "00186018=ULRegion Location Min X0",
        "0018601A=ULRegion Location Min Y0",
        "0018601C=ULRegion Location Max X1",
        "0018601E=ULRegion Location Max Y1",
        "00186020=SLReference Pixel X0",
        "00186022=SLReference Pixel Y0",
        "00186024=USPhysical Units X Direction",
        "00186026=USPhysical Units Y Direction",
        "00181628=FDReference Pixel Physical Value X",
        "0018602A=FDReference Pixel Physical Value Y",
        "0018602C=FDPhysical Delta X",
        "0018602E=FDPhysical Delta Y",
        "00186030=ULTransducer Frequency",
        "00186031=CSTransducer Type",
        "00186032=ULPulse Repetition Frequency",
        "00186034=FDDoppler Correction Angle",
        "00186036=FDSterring Angle",
        "00186038=ULDoppler Sample Volume X Position",
        "0018603A=ULDoppler Sample Volume Y Position",
        "0018603C=ULTM-Line Position X0",
        "0018603E=ULTM-Line Position Y0",
        "00186040=ULTM-Line Position X1",
        "00186042=ULTM-Line Position Y1",
        "00186044=USPixel Component Organization",
        "00186046=ULPixel Component Mask",
        "00186048=ULPixel Component Range Start",
        "0018604A=ULPixel Component Range Stop",
        "0018604C=USPixel Component Physical Units",
        "0018604E=USPixel Component Data Type",
        "00186050=ULNumber of Table Break Points",
        "00186052=ULTable of X Break Points",
        "00186054=FDTable of Y Break Points",
        "00186056=ULNumber of Table Entries",
        "00186058=ULTable of Pixel Values",
        "0018605A=ULTable of Parameter Values",
        "00187000=CSDetector Conditions Nominal Flag",
        "00187001=DSDetector Temperature",
        "00187004=CSDetector Type",
        "00187005=CSDetector Configuration",
        "00187006=LTDetector Description",
        "00187008=LTDetector Mode",
        "0018700A=SHDetector ID",
        "0018700C=DADate of Last Detector Calibration",
        "0018700E=TMTime of Last Detector Calibration",
        "00187010=ISExposures on Detector Since Last Calibration",
        "00187011=ISExposures on Detector Since Manufactured",
        "00187012=DSDetector Time Since Last Exposure",
        "00187014=DSDetector Active Time",
        "00187016=DSDetector Activation Offset From Exposure",
        "0018701A=DSDetector Binning",
        "00187020=DSDetector Element Physical Size",
        "00187022=DSDetector Element Spacing",
        "00187024=CSDetector Active Shape",
        "00187026=DSDetector Active Dimension(s)",
        "00187028=DSDetector Active Origin",
        "00187030=DSField of View Origin",
        "00187032=DSField of View Rotation",
        "00187034=CSField of View Horizontal Flip",
        "00187040=LTGrid Absorbing Material",
        "00187041=LTGrid Spacing Material",
        "00187042=DSGrid Thickness",
        "00187044=DSGrid Pitch",
        "00187046=ISGrid Aspect Ratio",
        "00187048=DSGrid Period",
        "0018704C=DSGrid Focal Distance",
        "00187050=LTFilter Material LT",
        "00187052=DSFilter Thickness Minimum",
        "00187054=DSFilter Thickness Maximum",
        "00187060=CSExposure Control Mode",
        "00187062=LTExposure Control Mode Description",
        "00187064=CSExposure Status",
        "00187065=DSPhototimer Setting",
        "0020000D=UIStudy Instance UID",
        "0020000E=UISeries Instance UID",
        "00200010=SHStudy ID",
        "00200011=ISSeries Number",
        "00200012=ISAcquisition Number",
        "00200013=ISImage Number",
        "00200014=ISIsotope Number",
        "00200015=ISPhase Number",
        "00200016=ISInterval Number",
        "00200017=ISTime Slot Number",
        "00200018=ISAngle Number",
        "00200020=CSPatient Orientation",
        "00200022=USOverlay Number",
        "00200024=USCurve Number",
        "00200030=DSImage Position",
        "00200032=DSImage Position (Patient)",
        "00200037=DSImage Orientation (Patient)",
        "00200052=UIFrame of Reference UID",
        "00200070=LOImage Geometry Type",
        "00200080=UIMasking Image UID",
        "00200100=ISTemporal Position Identifier",
        "00200105=ISNumber of Temporal Positions",
        "00200110=DSTemporal Resolution",
        "00201000=ISSeries in Study",
        "00201002=ISImages in Acquisition",
        "00201004=ISAcquisition in Study",
        "00201040=LOPosition Reference Indicator",
        "00201041=DSSlice Location",
        "00201070=ISOther Study Numbers",
        "00201200=ISNumber of Patient Related Studies",
        "00201202=ISNumber of Patient Related Series",
        "00201204=ISNumber of Patient Related Images",
        "00201206=ISNumber of Study Related Series",
        "00201208=ISNumber of Study Related Images",
        "00204000=LTImage Comments",
        "00280002=USSamples per Pixel",
        "00280004=CSPhotometric Interpretation",
        "00280006=USPlanar Configuration",
        "00280008=ISNumber of Frames",
        "00280009=ATFrame Increment Pointer",
        "00280030=DSPixel Spacing",
        "00280031=DSZoom Factor",
        "00280032=DSZoom Center",
        "00280034=ISPixel Aspect Ratio",
        "00280051=CSCorrected Image",
        "00280100=USBits Allocated",
        "00280101=USBits Stored",
        "00280102=USHigh Bit",
        "00280103=USPixel Representation",
        "00280106=USSmallest Image Pixel Value",
        "00280107=USLargest Image Pixel Value",
        "00280108=USSmallest Pixel Value in Series",
        "00280109=USLargest Pixel Value in Series",
        "00280120=USPixel Padding Value",
        "00280300=CSQuality Control Image",
        "00280301=CSBurned In Annotation",
        "00281040=CSPixel Intensity Relationship",
        "00281041=SSPixel Intensity Relationship Sign",
        "00281050=DSWindow Center",
        "00281051=DSWindow Width",
        "00281052=DSRescale Intercept",
        "00281053=DSRescale Slope",
        "00281054=LORescale Type",
        "00281055=LOWindow Center & Width Explanation",
        "00281101=USRed Palette Color Lookup Table Descriptor",
        "00281102=USGreen Palette Color Lookup Table Descriptor",
        "00281103=USBlue Palette Color Lookup Table Descriptor",
        "00281201=USRed Palette Color Lookup Table Data",
        "00281202=USGreen Palette Color Lookup Table Data",
        "00281203=USBlue Palette Color Lookup Table Data",
        "00282110=CSLossy Image Compression",
        "00283000=SQModality LUT Sequence",
        "00283002=USLUT Descriptor",
        "00283003=LOLUT Explanation",
        "00283004=LOMadality LUT Type",
        "00283006=USLUT Data",
        "00283010=SQVOI LUT Sequence",
        "30020011=DSImage Plane Pixel Spacing",
        "30020022=DSRadiation Machine SAD",
        "30020026=DSRT IMAGE SID",
        "0032000A=CSStudy Status ID",
        "0032000C=CSStudy Priority ID",
        "00320012=LOStudy ID Issuer",
        "00320032=DAStudy Verified Date",
        "00320033=TMStudy Verified Time",
        "00320034=DAStudy Read Date",
        "00320035=TMStudy Read Time",
        "00321000=DAScheduled Study Start Date",
        "00321001=TMScheduled Study Start Time",
        "00321010=DAScheduled Study Stop Date",
        "00321011=TMScheduled Study Stop Time",
        "00321020=LOScheduled Study Location",
        "00321021=AEScheduled Study Location AE Title(s)",
        "00321030=LOReason for Study",
        "00321032=PNRequesting Physician",
        "00321033=LORequesting Service",
        "00321040=DAStudy Arrival Date",
        "00321041=TMStudy Arrival Time",
        "00321050=DAStudy Completion Date",
        "00321051=TMStudy Completion Time",
        "00321055=CSStudy Component Status ID",
        "00321060=LORequested Procedure Description",
        "00321064=SQRequested Procedure Code Sequence",
        "00321070=LORequested Contrast Agent",
        "00324000=LTStudy Comments",
        "00400001=AEScheduled Station AE Title",
        "00400002=DAScheduled Procedure Step Start Date",
        "00400003=TMScheduled Procedure Step Start Time",
        "00400004=DAScheduled Procedure Step End Date",
        "00400005=TMScheduled Procedure Step End Time",
        "00400006=PNScheduled Performing Physician's Name",
        "00400007=LOScheduled Procedure Step Description",
        "00400008=SQScheduled Action Item Code Sequence",
        "00400009=SHScheduled Procedure Step ID",
        "00400010=SHScheduled Station Name",
        "00400011=SHScheduled Procedure Step Location",
        "00400020=CSScheduled Procedure Step Status",
        "00400100=SQScheduled Procedure Step Sequence",
        "00400220=SQReferenced Standalone SOP Instance Sequence",
        "00400241=AEPerformed Station AE Title",
        "00400242=SHPerformed Station Name",
        "00400243=SHPerformed Location",
        "00400244=DAPerformed Procedure Step Start Date",
        "00400245=TMPerformed Procedure Step Start Time",
        "00400250=DAPerformed Procedure Step End Date",
        "00400251=TMPerformed Procedure Step End Time",
        "00400252=CSPerformed Procedure Step Status",
        "00400253=SHPerformed Procedure Step ID",
        "00400254=LOPerformed Procedure Step Description",
        "00400255=LOPerformed Procedure Type Description",
        "00400260=SQPerformed Action Item Sequence",
        "00400270=SQScheduled Step Attributes Sequence",
        "00400275=SQRequest Attributes Sequence",
        "00400280=STComments on the Performed Procedure Steps",
        "00400293=SQQuantity Sequence",
        "00400295=SQMeasuring Units Sequence",
        "00400296=SQBilling Item Sequence",
        "00400300=USTotal Time of Fluoroscopy",
        "00400301=USTotal Number of Exposures",
        "00400302=USEntrance Dose",
        "00400303=USExposed Area",
        "00400306=DSDistance Source to Entrance",
        "00400307=DSDistance Source to Support",
        "00400310=STComments on Radiation Dose",
        "00400312=DSX-Ray Output",
        "00400314=DSHalf Value Layer",
        "00400316=DSOrgan Dose",
        "00400318=CSOrgan Exposed",
        "00400320=SQBilling Procedure Step Sequence",
        "00400321=SQFilm Consumption Sequence",
        "00400324=SQBilling Supplies and Devices Sequence",
        "00400330=SQReferenced Procedure Step Sequence",
        "00400340=SQPerformed Series Sequence",
        "00400400=LTComments on the Scheduled Procedure Step",
        "0040050A=LOSpecimen Accession Number",
        "00400550=SQSpecimen Sequence",
        "00400551=LOSpecimen Identifier",
        "0040059A=SQSpecimen Type Code Sequence",
        "00400555=SQAcquisition Context Sequence",
        "00400556=STAcquisition Context Description",
        "004006FA=LOSlide Identifier",
        "0040071A=SQImage Center Point Coordinates Sequence",
        "0040072A=DSX offset in Slide Coordinate System",
        "0040073A=DSY offset in Slide Coordinate System",
        "0040074A=DSZ offset in Slide Coordinate System",
        "004008D8=SQPixel Spacing Sequence",
        "004008DA=SQCoordinate System Axis Code Sequence",
        "004008EA=SQMeasurement Units Code Sequence",
        "00401001=SHRequested Procedure ID",
        "00401002=LOReason for the Requested Procedure",
        "00401003=SHRequested Procedure Priority",
        "00401004=LOPatient Transport Arrangements",
        "00401005=LORequested Procedure Location",
        "00401006= 1Placer Order Number / Procedure S",
        "00401007= 1Filler Order Number / Procedure S",
        "00401008=LOConfidentiality Code",
        "00401009=SHReporting Priority",
        "00401010=PNNames of Intended Recipients of Results",
        "00401400=LTRequested Procedure Comments",
        "00402001=LOReason for the Imaging Service Request",
        "00402004=DAIssue Date of Imaging Service Request",
        "00402005=TMIssue Time of Imaging Service Request",
        "00402006= 1Placer Order Number / Imaging Service Request S",
        "00402007= 1Filler Order Number / Imaging Service Request S",
        "00402008=PNOrder Entered By",
        "00402009=SHOrder Enterers Location",
        "00402010=SHOrder Callback Phone Number",
        "00402016=LOPlacer Order Number / Imaging Service Request",
        "00402017=LOFiller Order Number / Imaging Service Request",
        "00402400=LTImaging Service Request Comments",
        "00403001=LOConfidentiality Constraint on Patient Data Description",
        "00408302=DSEntrance Dose in mGy",
        "0040A010=CSRelationship Type",
        "0040A027=LOVerifying Organization",
        "0040A030=DTVerification DateTime",
        "0040A032=DTObservation DateTime",
        "0040A040=CSValue Type",
        "0040A043=SQConcept-name Code Sequence",
        "0040A050=CSContinuity Of Content",
        "0040A073=SQVerifying Observer Sequence",
        "0040A075=PNVerifying Observer Name",
        "0040A088=SQVerifying Observer Identification Code Sequence",
        "0040A0B0=USReferenced Waveform Channels",
        "0040A123=PNPerson Name",
        "0040A130=CSTemporal Range Type",
        "0040A132=ULReferenced Sample Positions",
        "0040A136=USReferenced Frame Numbers",
        "0040A138=DSReferenced Time Offsets",
        "0040A13A=DTReferenced Datetime",
        "0040A160=UTText Value",
        "0040A168=SQConcept Code Sequence",
        "0040A180=USAnnotation Group Number",
        "0040A195=SQModifier Code Sequence",
        "0040A300=SQMeasured Value Sequence",
        "0040A30A=DSNumeric Value",
        "0040A360=SQPredecessor Documents Sequence",
        "0040A370=SQReferenced Request Sequence",
        "0040A372=SQPerformed Procedure Code Sequence",
        "0040A375=SQCurrent Requested Procedure Evidence Sequence",
        "0040A385=SQPertinent Other Evidence Sequence",
        "0040A491=CSCompletion Flag",
        "0040A492=LOCompletion Flag Description",
        "0040A493=CSVerification Flag",
        "0040A504=SQContent Template Sequence",
        "0040A525=SQIdentical Documents Sequence",
        "0040A730=SQContent Sequence",
        "0040B020=SQAnnotation Sequence",
        "0040DB00=CSTemplate Identifier",
        "0040DB06=DTTemplate Version",
        "0040DB07=DTTemplate Local Version",
        "0040DB0B=CSTemplate Extension Flag",
        "0040DB0C=UITemplate Extension Organization UID",
        "0040DB0D=UITemplate Extension Creator UID",
        "0040DB73=ULReferenced Content Item Identifier",
        "00540011=USNumber of Energy Windows",
        "00540012=SQEnergy Window Information Sequence",
        "00540013=SQEnergy Window Range Sequence",
        "00540014=DSEnergy Window Lower Limit",
        "00540015=DSEnergy Window Upper Limit",
        "00540016=SQRadiopharmaceutical Information Sequence",
        "00540017=ISResidual Syringe Counts",
        "00540018=SHEnergy Window Name",
        "00540020=USDetector Vector",
        "00540021=USNumber of Detectors",
        "00540022=SQDetector Information Sequence",
        "00540030=USPhase Vector",
        "00540031=USNumber of Phases",
        "00540032=SQPhase Information Sequence",
        "00540033=USNumber of Frames in Phase",
        "00540036=ISPhase Delay",
        "00540038=ISPause Between Frames",
        "00540039=CSPhase Description",
        "00540050=USRotation Vector",
        "00540051=USNumber of Rotations",
        "00540052=SQRotation Information Sequence",
        "00540053=USNumber of Frames in Rotation",
        "00540060=USR-R Interval Vector",
        "00540061=USNumber of R-R Intervals",
        "00540062=SQGated Information Sequence",
        "00540063=SQData Information Sequence",
        "00540070=USTime Slot Vector",
        "00540071=USNumber of Time Slots",
        "00540072=SQTime Slot Information Sequence",
        "00540073=DSTime Slot Time",
        "00540080=USSlice Vector",
        "00540081=USNumber of Slices",
        "00540090=USAngular View Vector",
        "00540100=USTime Slice Vector",
        "00540101=USNumber of Time Slices",
        "00540200=DSStart Angle",
        "00540202=CSType of Detector Motion",
        "00540210=ISTrigger Vector",
        "00540211=USNumber of Triggers in Phase",
        "00540220=SQView Code Sequence",
        "00540222=SQView Modifier Code Sequence",
        "00540300=SQRadionuclide Code Sequence",
        "00540302=SQAdministration Route Code Sequence",
        "00540304=SQRadiopharmaceutical Code Sequence",
        "00540306=SQCalibration Data Sequence",
        "00540308=USEnergy Window Number",
        "00540400=SHImage ID",
        "00540410=SQPatient Orientation Code Sequence",
        "00540412=SQPatient Orientation Modifier Code Sequence",
        "00540414=SQPatient Gantry Relationship Code Sequence",
        "00540500=CSSlice Progression Direction",
        "00541000=CSSeries Type",
        "00541002=CSCounts Source",
        "00541004=CSReprojection Method",
        "00541100=CSRandoms Correction Method",
        "00541101=LOAttenuation Correction Method",
        "00541102=CSDecay Correction",
        "00541103=LOReconstruction Method",
        "00541104=LODetector Lines of Response Used",
        "00541105=LOScatter Correction Method",
        "00541200=DSAxial Acceptance",
        "00541201=ISAxial Mash",
        "00541202=ISTransverse Mash",
        "00541203=DSDetector Element Size",
        "00541210=DSCoincidence Window Width",
        "00541220=CSSecondary Counts Type",
        "00541300=DSFrame Reference Time",
        "00541310=ISPrimary (Prompts) Counts Accumulated",
        "00541311=ISSecondary Counts Accumulated",
        "00541320=DSSlice Sensitivity Factor",
        "00541321=DSDecay Factor",
        "00541322=DSDose Calibration Factor",
        "00541323=DSScatter Fraction Factor",
        "00541324=DSDead Time Factor",
        "00541330=USImage Index",
        "00541400=CSCounts Included",
        "00541401=CSDead Time Correction Flag",
        "30020002=SHRT Image Label",
        "30020003=LORT Image Name",
        "30020004=STRT Image Description",
        "3002000A=CSReported Values Origin",
        "3002000C=CSRT Image Plane",
        "3002000D=DSX-Ray Image Receptor Translation",
        "3002000E=DSX-Ray Image Receptor Angle",
        "30020011=DSImage Plane Pixel Spacing",
        "30020012=DSRT Image Position",
        "30020020=SHRadiation Machine Name",
        "30020022=DSRadiation Machine SAD",
        "30020026=DSRT Image SID",
        "30020029=ISFraction Number",
        "30020030=SQExposure Sequence",
        "30020032=DSMeterset Exposure",
        "300A011E=DSGantry Angle",
        "300A0120=DSBeam Limiting Device Angle",
        "300A0122=DSPatient Support Angle",
        "300A0128=DSTable Top Vertical Position",
        "300A0129=DSTable Top Longitudinal Position",
        "300A012A=DSTable Top Lateral Position",
        "300A00B3=CSPrimary Dosimeter Unit",
        "300A00F0=ISNumber of Blocks",
        "300C0006=ISReferenced Beam Number",
        "300C0008=DSStart Cumulative Meterset Weight",
        "300C0022=ISReferenced Fraction Group Number",

        "7FE00008=OXFloat Pixel Data",
        "7FE00010=OXPixel Data",
        "FFFEE00D=DLItem Delimitation Item",
        "FFFEE0DD=DLSequence Delimitation Item"